The Arab revolts changed the Middle East forever. A movement for democratic change has dissolved into chaos and bloodshed. States are collapsing. Out of a wave of sectarian fervour unleashed by these changes has emerged the merciless cruelty of Islamic State. Has the promise of the Arab Spring been lost? Can the West win a new `War on Terror' against ISIS? Will a new generation of Arab strongmen crush the young revolutionaries who fought so hard for change? Drawing on a deep knowledge of the region and access to many of the key players, BBC Bureau Chief Paul Danahar explains how the history of the Middle East before the revolts has created the current turmoil. This updated edition includes a new Introduction, a revised chapter on recent events in Syria, new material on the rise of ISIS, and a new Afterward that brings the book completely up to date.