How can the government of the People's Republic of China with its claim to absolute sovereignty be reconciled with the spiritual authority of the Catholic Church? In this study of the subject, Dr Beatrice Leung analyses the interactions between China and the Holy See from 1976 to 1986. Dr Leung examines the historic relationship between the Catholic Church and China both prior to 1949 and from 1949 to 1976. Using a wide range of Chinese language sources as well as interviews, she then analyses the major problems between these two institutions as they tried to establish a dialogue for future reconciliation. These include the need for the Vatican to transfer its recognition of China from Taiwan to Beijing; the role of the Pope with his spiritual leadership of the Chinese; and the handling of the Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association.