This book presents research findings about school-level and district-level practices and successful strategies employed in mathematics education by highly effective schools that serve high-poverty communities. It includes both the theory and practice of creating highly effective schools in these communities. In 2002 nine schools were selected in a national competition to participate in the Hewlett-Packard High Achieving Grant Initiative. As part of this Initiative, these schools participated in the research study this book reports. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methodologies to examine school- and classroom-level factors that contributed to high achievement, particularly in mathematics. The goals of the study were twofold: 1) to investigate the salient characteristics of the highly effective schools in which the research was conducted, and 2) to explore participating teachers' conceptions and practices about mathematics curriculum, instruction, and assessment. The schools described have much to teach about creating powerful learning environments that empower all students to learn challenging mathematics.Given the pressures of the accountability measures of the No Child Left Behind legislation, this book is extremely timely for those seeking school models that serve high-poverty communities and have demonstrated high performance on high-stakes examinations and other assessments. Mathematics Education at Highly Effective Schools That Serve the Poor: Strategies for Change is particularly relevant for teacher educators, researchers, teachers, and graduate students in the fields of mathematics education and school policy and reform, and for school administrators and district coordinators of mathematics education.