This book introduces the English-speaking world to the new Finnish interpretation of the theology of Martin Luther, initiated by the writings of Tuomo Mannermaa of Helsinki University. At the heart of the Finnish breakthrough in Luther research lies the theme of salvation. Luther found his answer to the mystery of salvation in the justifying work of Christ received through faith alone. But Protestant theology has never enjoyed a consensus on how to interpret the Reformation doctrine of justification by faith. In opposition to the traditional forensic understanding of justification, Mannermaa argues that for Luther "Christ is really present in faith itself." Mannermaa's interpretation of Luther's view of justification is thus more ontological and mystical than ethical and juridical. As such, his work challenges a century of scholarly opinion concerning a foundational doctrine of Protestant theology.