This judicious selection of articles combines mathematical and numerical methods to apply parameter estimation and optimum experimental design in a range of contexts. These include fields as diverse as biology, medicine, chemistry, environmental physics, image processing and computer vision. The material chosen was presented at a multidisciplinary workshop on parameter estimation held in 2009 in Heidelberg. The contributions show how indispensable efficient methods of applied mathematics and computer-based modeling can be to enhancing the quality of interdisciplinary research. The use of scientific computing to model, simulate, and optimize complex processes has become a standard methodology in many scientific fields, as well as in industry. Demonstrating that the use of state-of-the-art optimization techniques in a number of research areas has much potential for improvement, this book provides advanced numerical methods and the very latest results for the applications under consideration.