Harmonic maps between Riemannian manifolds were first established by James Eells and Joseph H. Sampson in 1964. Wave maps are harmonic maps on Minkowski spaces and have been studied since the 1990s. Yang-Mills fields, the critical points of Yang-Mills functionals of connections whose curvature tensors are harmonic, were explored by a few physicists in the 1950s, and biharmonic maps (generalizing harmonic maps) were introduced by Guoying Jiang in 1986. The book presents an overview of the important developments made in these fields since they first came up. Furthermore, it introduces biwave maps (generalizing wave maps) which were first studied by the author in 2009, and bi-Yang-Mills fields (generalizing Yang-Mills fields) first investigated by Toshiyuki Ichiyama, Jun-Ichi Inoguchi and Hajime Urakawa in 2008. Other topics discussed are exponential harmonic maps, exponential wave maps and exponential Yang-Mills fields.