Classical conditioning (CC) refers to the general paradigm for scientific studies of learning and memory, as initiated by Pavlov and his followers. Despite the current high level of interest in CC within neuroscience there is presently no single source that provides up-to-date comprehensive coverage of core topics. CC is a very large field. Nevertheless, some organisms and behaviors have dominated the neuroscience scene. Foremost of these are classical eyeblink conditioning (rats, cats, rabbits, and humans) and ear'conditioning. This handbook of CC focuses on these systems. It will be particularly appealing to the growing amount of scientists and medical specialists who employ CC methods.'