Author Biography: Miriam Hoexter is Associate Professor of Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the author of Endowments, Rulers, and Community: Waqf al-Haramayn in Ottoman Algiers. Shmuel N. Eisenstadt is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Senior Fellow at the Van Leer Jerusalem Institute. He has published many books, including most recently, Fundamentalism, Sectarianism and Revolution: The Jacobian Dimension of Modernity. Nehemia Levtzion is Fuld and Bambereger Professor of History of the Muslim Peoples at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His most recent book, coedited with Randall L. Pouwels, is The History of Islam in Africa.