It is now 20 years since thoracoscopic surgery first entered everyday hospital practice, revolutionizing surgery and offering major benefits to patients. The intervening years have witnessed rapid progress, with the development of a variety of specialized techniques and equipment. This superbly illustrated book provides authoritative and comprehensive descriptions of the various minimally invasive techniques that are currently employed in thoracic and cardiac surgery. A wide range of thoracoscopic procedures are explained and discussed, and detailed attention is also paid to robotic and robot-assisted surgical techniques. Throughout, the emphasis is on clear description of procedures and identification of practical aspects of relevance in surgical practice. The authors are some of the world's most experienced thoracic and cardiac surgeons, and many of them have contributed greatly to the exploration and development of the field.