Internists, surgeons, critical care physicians and nephrologists all treat critically ill patients with renal failure and the multiple system organ dysfunction syndrome. A comprehensive review of the state of the art of this topic is definitely needed both in academic and clinical medicine, and Critical Care Nephrology fulfils this need. It is a useful reference tool for both nephrologists and intensive care specialists and it is therefore no coincidence that the editors of the book are themselves specialists in these particular fields. The book addresses the following: definitions of critical illness, epidemiology, monitoring and diagnostic procedures, pathophysiology of organ systems in relation to kidney function, concepts of renal physiologic and pathologic responses to various derangements, oxygen transport and cardiovascular adaptations, hemodynamic parameters, respiratory parameters, mechanical ventilation and cardiac support, and severity score parameters. The book is also devoted to all forms of acute renal failure with specific reference to intensive care patients. The nature of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is discussed with special emphasis on the impact of different organs dysfunction and kidney failure. Kidney function and acute renal failure in patients with kidney, liver and heart transplants is also considered, as well as acute illness occurring in chronic hemodialysis patients. Special emphasis is placed on therapeutic interventions and treatment procedures. Different forms of organ support are discussed including liver, lung and cardiac therapy.