This turned out to be a political disaster for the Indonesian government, greatly increasing international support for the East Timorese independence strugggle.
The massacre backfired on the Indonesian government. The Backfire Manual explains why.
Imagine you´re planning an action and think you might come under attack. Maybe it´s a rally and there´s a risk of police brutality. Maybe you´re exposing government corruption and there could be reprisals against your group. To be prepared, you need to understand the tactics likely to be used by your opponent, for example covering up the action and trying to discredit you and your group.
The Backfire Manual provides guidance for this sort of planning. It outlines the backfire model and gives examples and exercises for using it. This is a practical handbook for being more effective whenever you face a powerful, dangerous opponent.
Brian Martin is professor of social sciences at the University of Wollongong, Australia. He is the author of numerous books and articles on nonviolent action and is vice president of Whistleblowers Australia.