The author provides new insights into the relationship between transport and the environment, the role of technology and the meaning of the concept of sustainable development for the transport sector. Special attention is given to the relationship between technological progress and policy. The different theoretical approaches are combined to create a strategy for R&D and the implementation of mega-technological innovations. The empirical part deals with two specific cases: Maglev technology and fuel-cell technology for transport purposes. Taking into account the new theoretical insights and the empirical findings, the author presents a synthesis and draws conclusions which are important for researchers and professionals in transportation, environmental sciences and related fields.