This fully-revised comprehensive fourth edition covers the whole field of physical geography including climate and atmosphere, geomorphology, biogeography, hydrology, oceans, Quaternary, environmental change, soils, remote sensing and GIS. This new edition reflects developments in the discipline during the last decade, with the expert advisory group providing an international perspective on the discipline of physical geography. Over 2000 entries that are self-contained or cross-referenced include 200 that are new to this edition, over 400 that are rewritten and updated, and new supporting references and additional recommended reading in many others. Entries removed from the last edition are available in the online resource. This volume is the essential reference point for students of physical geography and related environmental disciplines, lecturers and interested individuals alike.