This book is a collection of selected papers and book chapters on recent developments and research on sustainable energy solutions. Most articles were published in the years 2015-2017. After a brief introduction covering some key aspects of sustainable energy solutions and an overview of the selected papers by the editor, the selected publications can be studied, conveniently organized into five thematic sections.Section 1 focuses on the conversion of moving water or air (wind) into electricity. This section starts with an overview of the past and expected future development of hydropower throughout the world, as well as related technical, political, environmental, and social obstacles. The next paper investigates, which parameters are decisive for maximizing wind conversion efficiency considering different design parameters, including the type of wind-speed input-data. The outcome is surprisingly simple and helpful. Then follows a study of the feasibility of combining wave-energy with windfarms to offset the high costs that otherwise inhibit economic use of wave-energy - a power source that taps into an enormous but hitherto nearly unused energy resource. Section 2 targets solar, solar-hybrids, and geothermal energy-sources. It starts with an overview of heuristic methods and algorithms to combine renewable energy sources and even include non-renewable sources if needed. Optimizations can be performed with regard to minimizing cost, carbon emission, cost/efficiency-ratios, or maximum power-availability. Discussed components include photovoltaics, wind-turbines, diesel generators, and energy storage. This is followed by a study that reveals the often neglected yet decisive non-technical obstacles that prevent small off-grid solar systems from becoming economically and environmentally sustainable. The last paper addresses the two factors that have so far limited the economic use of geothermal power (which is about to change): exploration uncertainty and early-stage capital expenditure. Section 3, biofuel and biomass, starts with a theoretical study that asserts that the global biomass production potential exceeds future demand without the need for cropland expansion. This is followed by a paper on carbondioxide-removal strategies in combination with bioenergy.Section 4, hydrogen and nuclear power, addresses important issues like the need to phase out nuclear power due to technical and economic incompatibility with renewables, a scalability concept for solar energy driven water splitting, and that it is even possible to use natural photosynthetic membranes (extracted from spinach) to split water and produce hydrogen. Section 5, energy storage & building integration of sustainable energy solutions, describes a study of current and emerging energy storing policies and technologies, many of which have already been used successfully in some countries, which can facilitate a more wide-spread use of similar renewable energy solutions.
Sustainable Energy Solutions