Many engineering and scientific problems in design, control, and parameter estimation can be formulated as optimization problems that are governed by partial differential equations (PDEs). The complexities of the PDEs - and the requirement for rapid solution - pose significant difficulties. A particularly challenging class of PDE-constrained optimization problems is characterized by the need for real-time solution, i.e., in time scales that are sufficiently rapid to support simulation-based decision making. Real-Time PDE-Constrained Optimization, the first book devoted to real-time optimization for systems governed by PDEs, focuses on new formulations, methods, and algorithms needed to facilitate real-time, PDE-constrained optimization. In addition to presenting state-of-the-art algorithms and formulations, the text illustrates these algorithms with a diverse set of applications that includes problems in the areas of aerodynamics, biology, fluid dynamics, medicine, chemical processes, homeland security, and structural dynamics.Despite difficulties, there is a pressing need to capitalize on continuing advances in computing power to develop optimization methods that will replace simple rule-based decision making with optimized decisions based on complex PDE simulations.