The International Conference on "Nuclear Structure Study with Neutrons" or- ganized in Budapest between 31st July and 5th August. 1972. was the successor of a meeting held seven years ago in Antwerp. The close links between the two conferences were revealed not in name alone but. more importantly. in the choice of subjects discussed. As in Antwerp. the lectures and contributions to the Budapest Conference could be grouped under the following five main headings: nuclear spectroscopy; the optical model; the statistical model and intermediate structures; the mechanism of neutron capture and non-statistical effects; and, finally. miscellaneous special topics. The invited papers on the one hand summarizing recent developments and current thinking in one of the above main topics. and the other surveying the most important results of the contributed papers submitted to the Conference. were presented on the plenary sessions. Most of the contributed papers were read in full on three parallel sessions. This volume contains the complete text of all the lectures delivered in the plenary sessions and abstracts of the contributed papers. The invited talks were presented at the Conference in a rather random order because of technical reasons, it seemed. however, more sensible to change their order according to their subjects and to print them grouped under the above main headings. Further- more we divided the Proceedings into two main parts, the first containing only the lectures of summarizing character. the second including the abstracts of the contributions together with the surveying talks.