Dialogue has developed from more primitive forms of social communication in the course of evolution. In Mutualities in Dialogue, ‘dialogue’ refers to face-to-face interaction between two or more individuals using a system of signs. It asks the question, ‘what is it that we share in the course of a dialogue?’, arguing that mutualities of language, culture and some interpersonal information are prerequisite for effective communication. Even in instances of noncooperation or of asymmetrical dialogue - such as attempts to persuade, manipulate or blame - elementary commonalities must be present. Mutualities in Dialogue focuses on the dyad rather than the interacting individuals. It includes chapters on mutualities in preverbal and nonverbal communication, establishing and maintaining mutuality, problems of mutuality and understanding, and dialogues with speech-impaired partners.