Public key cryptography is a major interdisciplinary subject with many real-world applications, such as digital signatures. A strong background in the mathematics underlying public key cryptography is essential for a deep understanding of the subject, and this book provides exactly that for students and researchers in mathematics, computer science and electrical engineering. Carefully written to communicate the major ideas and techniques of public key cryptography to a wide readership, this text is enlivened throughout with historical remarks and insightful perspectives on the development of the subject. Numerous examples, proofs and exercises make it suitable as a textbook for an advanced course, as well as for self-study. For more experienced researchers it serves as a convenient reference for many important topics: the Pollard algorithms, Maurer reduction, isogenies, algebraic tori, hyperelliptic curves and many more.