Addressing the issue of whether an influential Western European common foreign and security policy is likely to emerge from co-operation within the European Union, this book assesses the degree of convergence in Western European attitudes to the use of armed force. Arguing that Western Europe foreign and security policy co-operation above all is put to the test when the question of whether the European Union member states should engage in a collective arrmed intervention outside the NATO area arises, the essay looks at the national experiences in this area. The Gulf War and the conflict in former Yugoslavia were chosen as case studies. The essay deals with the national foreign policies, underlying the decisions taken by Britain, Italy and Denmark. It is argued that all the Western European countries during the critical post-Cold War transition period from 1990 to 1993 learned important lessons on which they will build their foreign and security policies for the years to come. The implications of these lessons will still be seen far beyond the three years the transition took.In this manner, the analysis also gives an indication of the nature of a future European Common Foreign and Security Policy. The essay sheds light on both political and military aspects of the two conflicts. It should be relevant for politicians, military planners, scholars in international relations and anyone with an interest in European integration.