Who are the smugglers of Chinese people? How is Chinese human smuggling organized in the Netherlands? Using unique and hitherto undisclosed information from court files covering the years 1996-2003, this study provides in-depth insights into the manner in which smugglers interact and how they organize their activities. Characteristics such as the ethnicity, nationality, age and sex of the offenders are examined, as well as the extent to which they are involved in other criminal activities such as drug trafficking or the exploitation of the people they smuggle. From a historical perspective, this study also debates whether the smuggling of Chinese has evolved over the years. Finally, the implications for, and consequences of, law enforcement policies are discussed.
Chinese Human Smuggling in Transit