This book offers a comparison between our earthly society and the society of a hypothetical twin planet with the aim to understand and deal with some of the main problems of our global society, as well as to advance interaction with some extra-terrestrial society no less advanced than ours that sooner or later will be discovered. The underlying premise of the book is that the contemporary world finds itself in what may well be the most confused age of human history. Growing technological changes and innovation make it difficult to understand the course of social reality, while the intensification of the relations between different regions of the Earth and the power achieved by financial capital on a world scale amplify the dimensions and visibility of disequilibria and iniquities, and sharpen frustration and sentiments of insecurity. Social thought, as it has developed at the service of a quasi-stationary world, lacks the ability to understand and govern the tumultuous economic and social processes in progress.The most efficacious way to meet this fleeting social reality is to scientifically highlight basic institutions and values and their steady changes caused by the accumulation of creative and choice processes. In doing so, long-run trends can be explored in order to understand and manage the disequilibrating-reequilibrating motion characterizing the life of dynamic societies. This book shows the 'necessity' of institutional and ethical transformations utilizing an utopian flavour.