This is based on the course 'Calculus of Variations' taught at Peking University from 2006 to 2010 for advanced undergraduate to graduate students majoring in mathematics. The book contains 20 lectures covering both the theoretical background material as well as an abundant collection of applications. Lectures 1-8 focus on the classical theory of calculus of variations. Lectures 9-14 introduce direct methods along with their theoretical foundations. Lectures 15-20 showcase a broad collection of applications. The book offers a panoramic view of the very important topic on calculus of variations. This is a valuable resource not only to mathematicians, but also to those students in engineering, economics, and management, etc.