Sitting on the cusp between Mediterranean and sub-Saharan Africa, Niger is in many ways a remarkable place, blending in the harsh Sahelian environment a great diversity of cultures and lifestyles to make up a poor but resilient nation. The country was established in the early 20th century in what used to be the busy crossroad of exchanges between the kingdoms and empires of West Africa and the Arab-Islamic world. The resulting melting pot is a blend of Western Sudanic cultures, manifest in particular in its food, music, and dance, as well as in the enduring rituals and practices of animist religions, along with a good deal of Arab culture imported through the Islamic religion and a dash of French culture.The fourth edition of the Historical Dictionary of Niger covers the history of the peoples of the Republic of Niger from medieval times to the present. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 700 cross-referenced entries covering elements of pre-colonial and colonial history, recent politics, cinema, literature, religion, economics, and finance. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Niger.