The fourth edition of the Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics has been completely revised and updated. This includes all existing third edition chapters plus new chapters written to cover new areas. These include the following subjects: Managing low-back disorder risk in the workplace Online interactivity Neuroergonomics Office ergonomics Social networking HF&E in motor vehicle transportation User requirements Human factors and ergonomics in aviation Human factors in ambient intelligent environments As with the earlier editions, the main purpose of this handbook is to serve the needs of the human factors and ergonomics researchers, practitioners, and graduate students. Each chapter has a strong theory and scientific base, but is heavily focused on real world applications. As such, a significant number of case studies, examples, figures, and tables are included to aid in the understanding and application of the material covered.