This book challenges the view that Run- of-River hydropower dams are green, clean and renewable. It establishes that long term economic costs of hydropower are much larger than benefits through meticulous assessment of impacts. Also challenged is the perception that our needs for power are vast. It is shown that Ministry of Power and Planning Commission have greatly exaggerated our requirements. In the result we may be destroying our rivers in the long run for a non-existent demand. The book also presents surveys of three hydropower dams in Uttarakhand which indicate that the long terms costs described in the book are supported by peoples perception. This book is essential reading for economists, power sector officials, power generation companies and environmentalists alike.