This volume collects together most of the papers presented at the Twelfth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop (NCPW12) held in 2010 at Birkbeck College (England). The conference invited submissions on neurocomputational models of all cognitive and psychological processes. The special theme of this conference was “From Theory to Applications”, which allowed submissions of pure theoretical work and of pure applied work. This topic extended the boundaries of the conference and highlighted the extent to which computational models of cognition and models in general are integrated in the cognitive sciences.The chapters in this book cover a wide range of research topics in neural computation and psychology, including cognitive development, language processing, higher-level cognition, but also ecology-based modeling of cognition, philosophy of science, and real-world applications.Contents:An Ecology-Based Approach to Perceptual Modelling (E L Byrne, D P A Corney and R B Lotto)Early Development of Visual Abilities (Alessio Plebe)The Importance of Low Spatial Frequencies for Categorization of Emotional Facial Expressions (L Lopez, P Bonin, N Vermeulen, A Meot and M Mermillod)Modeling Speech Perception with Restricted Boltzmann Machines (Michael Klein, Louis ten Bosch and Lou Boves)Learning the Visual Word Code (T Hannagan and J Grainger)What are The Functional Units in Reading? Evidence for Statistical Variation Influencing Word Processing (Alastair C Smith and Padraic Monaghan)Modelling Free Recall — A Combined Activation-Buffer and Distributed-Context Model (Anat Elhalal and Marius Usher)Inference, Ontologies and The Pump of Thought (Andrzej Wichert)Digital Typology Modelling of Cognitive Abilities (Agnès Garletti)Using Enriched Semantic Representations in Predictions of Human Brain Activity (Joseph P Levy and John A Bullinaria)Some Issues in Computational Modelling; Occam's Razor and Hegel's Hair Gel (Richard Shillcock, Matthew Roberts, Hamutal Kreiner and Mateo Obregon)How is Hair Gel Quantified? (Mark A Pitt and Jay I Myung)and other papersReadership: Professional, student, graduate, research.