China's rapid development has attracted worldwide attention in recent years. The implications of China's rise, from its expanding influence and military muscle to its growing demand for energy supplies, are heatedly debated in the international community. Jintao's officially proposed concept of 'peaceful development' has become the underlying principle behind Chinese foreign policy under the fourth generation leadership. However, is 'peaceful development' possible in the broad context of domestic and international development? This comprehensive and timely study examines the conditions and challenges of China's 'peaceful rise' and addresses the central question of whether it is possible for China to 'rise peacefully' in the 21st century, bearing in mind the implications for China and the rest of the world. It is ideal as a supplementary course book in foreign policy, Asian politics and development.