The impact to airlines from airspace closure can be as benign as a two minute extension on an arrival pattern, or as catastrophic as a shoot down from a surface-to-air missile, as the tragic loss of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 over the Ukraine in July 2014 demonstrates. Airspace constraints come in a variety of forms, both man-made and physical, but all result in operational inefficiencies that erode the economic vitality of an airline. Understanding the root causes of these airspace restrictions, developing strategies for mitigating their impact, and anticipating future airspace closures, are critical for the efficient and safe operation of any airline.This book uniquely examines the technological, geographic, regulatory, and political aspects of airspace closure, with a focus on how airlines continue to adapt to overcome these challenges, providing readers with a framework for identifying issues and solutions in a systematic manner. Filled with historical references and contemporary anecdotes, this book serves both as a practical guide and strategic resource for airline managers navigating their 21st century. organizations around some of the lingering 20th century obstacles.