The current shortages of water in the areas east and west of the Jordan suggest that the next war in the Middle East could result from disputes between Israel and its Arab neighbors over water, an especially precious resource in those arid lands. This study provides a complete presentation of the Arab-Israeli water resource problem and suggests workable solutions that will benefit both sides. The authors, one an Israeli water planner and the other an economist, outline an objective and realistic approach to a problem frequently misanalyzed and overdramatized. Their work suggests that peace will enable a long term solution to the region's water problem and, conversely, that the solution to the Arab-Israeli water problem can support and secure peace. This work will be of interest to scholars in Middle East studies and politics, environmental and resource management, and international relations and economics.