The U.S. program of assistance to Afghanistan is intended to stabilize and strengthen the Afghan economic, social, political and security environment so as to blunt popular support for extremist forces in the region. Since 2001, nearly $52 billion has been appropriated toward this effort. More than half of U.S. assistance has gone to the training and equipping of Afghan forces, while the remainder has gone to development and humanitarian-related activities from infrastructure to private sector support, governance and democratization efforts, and counter-narcotics programs. This book examines the roles of the U.S. and United Nations in Afghanistan and provides an overview of the U.S. aid program and congressional action. It also discusses the obstacles the United Nations faces in coordinating international efforts, related policy issues and considerations for the 112th Congress.