There is significant focus on the surfaces of metallic biomaterials and their interaction with the biological system. This complex interaction between a metal, its oxide film surface, adsorbed biological species (proteins) and the cells that grow adjacent to the surface is discussed from several fundamental theories including the electrical double layer, basic corrosion theory, high field oxide film growth, semiconductor electrochemistry, impedance spectroscopy, etc. Conjoint interactions (e.g., fretting corrosion) and biological interactions (e.g., cell-corrosion interactions) are discussed. Finally, several different cast studies of failures of retrieved medical devices are described and used as examples for engineering analysis of failure.
The Science and Engineering of Metallic Biomaterials
The text lays out the fundamental science of metallic biomaterials, their bulk and surface properties, the fundamental features of the bulk and surface structures and the properties of these materials as they relate to the design and performance of metallic medical devices. Interactions between the metal and the biological environment are defined and discussed (Corrosion and Biocompatibility), and the effects of loading (stresses and strains, motions, tribology, fatigue, fracture), corrosion, and biological processes including adsorption and cell interactions) are described from fundamental principles as well as synthesis of empirical observations and seminal studies. Engineering aspects of the use of metallic biomaterials in the wide array of medical devices are discussed. The text discusses test methodologies and instrumentation for studying metallic biomaterials (surfaces and bulk properties) including microscopies (SEM, EDS, AFM, etc.) mechanical testing (fracture toughness, fatigue, static properties), and chemical analysis (XPS, TOF-SIMS, etc.).