What role has civil society played in the history of Burma? Is civil society re-emerging in today's Burma? How can the international community develop strategies to strengthen the existing institutions that are essential to the growth of pluralism and democracy? What role should international non-governmental organizations play?This collection of essays brings together the research and insights of four experts in the field. Timely and highly readable, these papers present the current thinking on whether and how civil society can develop under the present Burmese military regime. The contributors include David I. Steinberg, Martin Smith, Zunetta Liddell, and Marc Purcell.