Poland was central to the historic changes that took place across Eastern Europe at the end of the Cold War. It is the largest economy in the region, and was at the forefront of opposition to communism, with the rise of Solidarity in the 1980s. This book explores the way that neoliberal policies have formed the basis of transformation, championed by both post-communist and post-Solidarity governments. Jane Hardy provides a rigorous assessment of the impact of these policies on everyday lives and Poland's place in the European and global economy. These are firmly set in the context of the complex and dynamic political economy of the country. The role of capital in the form of transnational corporations and foreign direct investment is central to the analysis. The revival of trade unions and growth of new social movements are explored as they challenge Poland's new capitalism. No other book studies Poland's recent history in such depth. This book will be a key text for students of political economy, international relations, social movements and labour studies.