In 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed along with the utopianCommunist ideal that had played a major role in world politics forseventy-four years.This book is about the evolution of Russian anti-utopian literaturein a post-Soviet environment. A guiding question for the presentstudy has been: What makes us recognize a novel as anti-utopian ata time when the idea of utopia may appear obsolete? The main partof the dissertation is comprised of detailed analyses of the novels:The Slynx (Kys’, 2001) by Tatyana Tolstaya; Babylon/Homo Zapiens(Generation ‘P’, 1999) by Viktor Pelevin; and Ice Trilogy (LedianaiaTrilogiia, 2002-2005) by Vladimir Sorokin. The further developmentof the genre is subsequently discussed on the basis of seven novelspublished during the past decade.The dissertation shows how the analysed novels problematizevarious forms of societal discourse, and how these discourseswork as mutations of utopia. Prominent among these are historicaldiscourses – phantoms of the past, which reflect the increasingimportance of historical narratives in public political debates inpresent-day Russia.