Optical methods for investigating semiconductors and the theoretical description of optical processes have always been an important part of semiconductor physics. Only the emphasis placed on different materials changes with time. Here, a large number of papers are devoted to quantum dots, presenting the theory, spectroscopic investigation and methods of producing such structures. Another major part of the book reflects the growing interest in diluted semiconductors and II-IV nanosystems in general. There are also discussions of the fascinating field of photonic crystals. `Classical' low dimensional systems, such as GsAs/GaAlAs quantum wells and heterostructures, still make up a significant part of the results presented, and they also serve as model systems for new phenomena. New materials are being sought, and new experimental techniques are coming on stream, in particular the combination of different spectroscopic modalities.