The therapeutic options for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative and traumatic diseases such as spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, etc. , have undergone enormous progress over recent years. Despite these encouraging developments, available therapies are only partially effective, and the ultimate goal is still far from being attained. Improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and demyelination has led to a variety of new therapeutic targets and approaches. In addition to modulation of the in?ammatory process (MS) and cl- sical neuroprotection (stroke, AD), therapeutic approaches focussing on active remyelinization and neuronal regeneration have become incre- ingly important. Based on current concepts, this book summarizes new therapeutic approaches. Although it was once thought that the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals was incapable of substantial recovery from injury, it is now clear that the adult CNS remains responsive to various substances that can promote cell survival and stimulate axonal growth.Among these substances are growth factors, including the neurotrophins and cytokines. Stem cell therapies for the induction of remyelinization and neuroregeneration are reviewed. The potential role of a protective - munity in the induction of remyelination and neuroregeneration is also discussed. Different gene therapy approaches for the treatment of MS VI Preface and other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and spinal cord injury, etc. , are also summarized.