To early American immigrants, nineteenth-century newcomers from the Scandinavian peninsula likely seemed all of a type. To immigrants hailing from Norway and Sweden, however, differences in language, culture, and religion sorted them into distinct groupings: not Scandinavian, but Norwegian or Swedish - and proud of their lineage. How did these differences affect relationships in the new world? In what ways did Swedes and Norwegians preserve their cultures in the city and in rural areas? On what political subjects did they disagree - or perhaps agree? Did they build communities together or in opposition to each other? Where they were neighbours, were they also friends? In this groundbreaking volume, scholars from the United States, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark debate these issues and more, sharing perspectives on context, culture, conflict, and community. Essayists include Philip J Anderson, Jennifer Attebery, H Arnold Barton, Ulf Jonas Bjork, Dag Blanck, Jorn Brondal, Angela Falk, Mark Granquist, Per Olof Gronberg, Ingeborg Kongslien, James P Leary, Joy K Lintelman, Odd S Lovoll, David Mauk, Byron J Nordstrom, Kurt W Peterson, Harald Runblom, and Mark Safstrom.