Text in German. The purpose of the present work is to combine the advantages of the various research traditions and at the same time to avoid the respective disadvantages. An attempt will be made to interpret the existing archaeological facts with reference to cultural development in large parts of Europe. As a first step an investigation will be made of all indications of contacts between the Ertebolle culture and the early Funnel Beaker culture (5500-3500 BC) on the one hand, and Neolithic cultures in various parts of Europe on the other hand. This will incorporate an analysis of all imported artefacts and also locally produced artefacts and structures with a form that suggests external influence. The results will subsequently be used for an investigation of a range of local factors -- such as regionality, social structures and communication structures - which are thought to be of significance for understanding the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. An analysis will also be carried out of the central European background of the Funnel Beaker culture.The results of these investigations will in conclusion be combined into a new theory concerning the introduction of agriculture in the Nordic region.