How do people name places on islands? Is toponymy in small island communities affected by degrees of connection to larger neighbours such as a mainland? Are island (contact) languages and mainland languages different in how they are used in naming places? How can we conceptualise the human-human interface in the fieldwork situation when collecting placenames on islands? This book offers answers relevant to toponymists, linguists, island studies scholars, and anthropologists. It focuses on two island environments within Australia - Norfolk Island, South Pacific and Dudley Peninsula, Kangaroo Island, South Australia - and puts forward a number of novel findings relevant to Australian linguistics and the linguistics and toponymy of islands anywhere.