Published between 1828 and 1840, Napier's History of the War in the Peninsula was a tremendously influential, if controversial, work. Napier had been actively involved in the campaigns, turning to history in peacetime, in part to refute Southey's account of Sir John Moore. The first volume had a mixed reception, getting both high praise and bitter criticism from participants in the wars. He published several works rebutting his critics while producing the later volumes. Because of his obvious lack of impartiality, modern military historians treat the work with caution, but it remains widely read in the many editions and abridgements subsequently produced. Volume 5 is prefixed by further refutations of published criticisms. It then covers the period from the siege of Badajoz and the Allies' military setbacks of late 1812 to the battle of Vitoria in June 1813, a crucial victory which ultimately led to French troops retiring from Spain.