In recent years, Raman spectroscopy has undergone a major transformation from a specialist laboratory technique to a practical analytical tool. This change was driven on several parallel fronts by dramatic advances in laser instrumentation, detectors, spectrometers, and optical ?lter technology. This resulted in the advent of a new generation of compact and robust Raman instruments with improved sensitivity and ?exibility. These devices could be operated for the ?rst time by non-specialists outside the laboratory envir- ment. Indeed, Raman spectroscopy is now found in the chemical and phar- ceutical industries for process control and has very recently been introduced into hospitals. Handheld instruments are used in forensic and other security applications and battery-operated versions for ?eld use are found in envir- mental and geological studies. Simultaneously, major advances have been seen in the development of powerful processing methods, some driven by the progress of related spect- scopic methods such as NIR absorption spectroscopy. Numerous chemometric packages are available for advanced analysis of data.These do not require specialist user knowledge (although caution is required in interpreting - sults) and provide further enhanced sensitivity and capability to the Raman technique. In this book we focus on two such major ?elds, biomedical and ph- maceutical. The book is aimed at life sciences and pharmaceutical re- erships. Accordingly, the chapter authors emphasize explanatory material with practical implications rather than focusing on mathematical detail.