The death of Frantz Fanon at the age of thirty-six robbed the African revolution of its leading intellectual and moral force. His death also cut short one of the most extraordinary intellectual careers in contemporary political thought. Fanon was a political psychologist whose approach to revolutionary theory was grounded in his psychiatric practice. During his years in Algeria he published clinical studies on the behaviour of violent patients, the role of culture in the development of illness and the function of the psychiatric hospital as a social milieu. These papers illuminate Fanon’s political theory, expose weaknesses in his concept of political consciousness and liberation, and contain a ‘secret history’ explaining the tide of revolutionary movements in the Third World.