Bananas are a major staple food for millions of people in the world, especially in tropical regions. In 2006, estimated world production of bananas was 80.6 million tons while 16.8 million tons of fruit were traded. Bananas are a valuable nutrition source of vitamin A, B6, and C. They are rich in carbohydrates, fibres and potassium. Banana plants can also be used in the making of papers, handicrafts, baskets, carpets, as animal feed and inter-cropping. They also have important medicinal uses in the treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhoea and to reduce stress and anxiety. This book presents current research data in the study of bananas compiled from authors across the globe and including agrochemical free treatments to improve the shelf-life of bananas; pesticide residues in bananas; green banana pulp usage; enzymes and bioactive proteins in bananas; and, banana lectin interactions with the immune system.