This book advances our understanding of university spin-off creation and development in environments outside the high-tech clusters of the US. While there has been substantial university spin-off activity internationally in recent years, a number of major aspects are little understood. The authors argue that the nature of universities is changing as reduced public funding reflects a public debate on their role in society. An important aspect of this international phenomenon is an increased emphasis on the commercialization of university research and on academic entrepreneurship. These new ventures therefore involve the spinning-off of technology and knowledge generated by universities. The authors adopt a multi-level approach in their examination of university spin-offs. European case studies are specifically selected to reflect the diversity of the institutional environment. In particular, units of analysis involving universities, technology transfer offices, spin-off firms, finance providers and individual entrepreneurs and teams are extensively analysed in quantitative and qualitative studies. To conclude, policy implications for the future successful development of spin-offs are identified.This fascinating book will appeal to a wide-ranging audience including academics, policy makers, researchers and practitioners with an interest in academic entrepreneurship and university spin-offs, and, more generally, in business and management and entrepreneurship.