Many students have come to the study of war and peace from a background heavily influenced by media exposure and political commitment. Some tend to see rebellion against autocratic rule mainly in terms of political ideals and the struggle for justice. The academic study of civil war, on the other hand, in recent years has focused more on the opportunity factors, even claiming that the greed of rebel leaders can play an important role in driving an insurrection. Discovering this, some students have become disillusioned, but many have taken up the challenge to show that wars in general and civil wars in particular are also fought for more than material gain. This book offers a balanced assessment of grievance and opportunity theories, and will serve as food for thought as the readers attempt to hammer out their own projects and move the field forward.