Since the late 1970s, transnational religious institutions have begun to reassert their own beliefs, contending that God's law is above state law and challenging states' claims of sovereignty. In turn, states have enforced their authority by establishing government-controlled state religions, by separating religion from politics, or by denying religion's influence over public and private affairs. This collection of original essays systematically examines the way in which three of the world's major monotheistic religions Islam, Christianity and Judaism interact with twentieth-century state systems. Focusing on the current trend toward renewed political conflict between religious groups and sovereign states, the authors analyze this interaction in Argentina, Cuba, Mexico, the United States, Eastern Europe, Germany, Israel, Egypt, Islamic Africa, Pakistan, and the Soviet Union. Author note: Matthew C. Moen is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Maine. Lowell S. Gustafson is Assistant Professor Political Science at Villanova University.
The Religious Challenge to the State