This volume presents the findings of some interesting research into profiling. The aim of the research has been to identify and tackle the challenges posed by profiling technologies to fundamental rights. The focus is on data protection, and the context is that of the European Union. This volume testifies to the increased awareness of the far-reaching implications of profiling, notably with regard to democracy and the rule of law. Profiling confronts traditional understandings of fundamental rights with a new environment that is progressively contingent on data-driven applications and infrastructures. Profiling nourishes the advance of smart grids, smart cars and traffic management, remote e-health, personalized advertising and search engines, as well as data-driven fraud detection, policing, criminal justice and foreign intelligence.