Moral Constraints on War offers a principle-by-principle presentation of the transcultural roots of the ethics of war in an age defined by the increasingly international nature of military intervention. Parts one and two trace the evolution of Just War theory, analyzing the principles of jus ad bellum and jus in bello: the principles that determine under what conditions a war may be started and then conducted. Each chapter provides the historical background of the principle under discussion, an explanation of the principle, and numerous historical examples of its application. In Part three, case studies apply the theories discussed to the Gulf War, the 1994 Russian intervention in Chechnya, NATO's humanitarian mission in Kosovo, and the U.S. military's actions in Afghanistan in the wake of the World Trade Center attacks. Bringing together an international coterie of philosophers and political scientists this accessible and practical guide offers students of military ethics, international law, and social conflict rich, up-to-the-minute insight into the pluralistic character of Just War Theory.