The oceans contain a great biodiversity of marine organisms. They include a rich variety of unusual genes and biochemistries and hence a diverse array of organic compounds ranging from colourful carotenoids and chlorophylls to lipids with structures ranging from the simple to the complex. This volume brings together ten chapters on the occurrence and identification of the lipid biomarkers and of pigments in marine waters. It describes how they can be used in conjunction with stable isotopes and molecular biology to ascertain the sources and fate of organic matter (both natural and pollutant) in the sea and underlying sediments. The authors are each experts in their field and the chapters provide both an overview of the state-of-the-art and knowledge gaps together with abundant detail to satisfy the needs of specialists and non-specialists alike.