The design and implementation of quality machine translation MT systems remains one of the principal aims of computational linguistics. This new edition provides a foundation for understanding design strategies by critically appraising and describing six of the major second generation MT systems.; The text begins with an introduction to the basic linguistic and computational problems faced by MT systems designers. The six major software projects are then described and dissected in this context: Systran; Taum-Meteo; Taum Aviation; Geta Ariane-78; Wilks' VEXT system; and metal.; The second edition of this text provides an up-to-date survey of the lessons learnt in major MT systems development. It should be useful for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and professionals in machine translation. It is also intended for postgraduate and research level in machine translation and computational linguistics.